NRP

Neonatal Resuscitation Temperature control


Neonatal Resuscitation: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care

2010 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations

Neonatal Resuscitation

Chapter P: Neonatal Resuscitation

Neonatal Resuscitation: An Update

Resuscitation of neonates

Neonatal resuscitation: Current issues

Neonatal thermoregulation

Neonatal resuscitation in the delivery room

Neonatal Resuscitation -Golden first minute

Neonatal resuscitation guidelines update: A case-based review

Neonatal Resuscitation: Specific treatment recommendations

Part 7: Neonatal resuscitation

Evidence Based Neonatal Resuscitation

Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP)


Update on neonatal resuscitation

Summary of Major Changes to the 2005 AAP/AHA Emergency Cardiovascular Care
Guidelines for Neonatal Resuscitation


New Australian Neonatal Resuscitation guidelines

NEONATAL RESUSCITATION PROVIDER (NRP) RECERTIFICATION

Neonatal Resuscitation: Beyond the Basics



































http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/126/5/e1400.full

Neonatal Resuscitation: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care

The following guidelines are an interpretation of the evidence presented in the 2010 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations1). They apply primarily to newly born infants undergoing transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life, but the recommendations are also applicable to neonates who have completed perinatal transition and require resuscitation during the first few weeks to months following birth. Practitioners who resuscitate infants at birth or at any time during the initial hospital admission should consider following these guidelines. For the purposes of these guidelines, the terms newborn and neonate are intended to apply to any infant during the initial hospitalization. The term newly born is intended to apply specifically to an infant at the time of birth.

Approximately 10% of newborns require some assistance to begin breathing at birth. Less than 1% require extensive resuscitative measures.2,3 Although the vast majority of newly born infants do not require intervention to make the transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life, because of the large total number of births, a sizable number will require some degree of resuscitation.

http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/122/16_suppl_2/S516.full.pdf

2010 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations

Approximately 10% of newborns require some assistance to begin breathing at birth, and 1% require extensive resuscitation (LOE 41,2). Although the vast majority of newborn infants do not require intervention to make the transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life, the large number of births worldwide means that many infants require some assistance to achieve cardiorespiratory stability. Newborn infants who are born at term and are breathing or crying and have good tone must be dried and kept warm. These actions can be provided with the baby lying on the mother’s chest and should not require separation of mother and baby. All others need to be assessed to determine their need for one or more of the following actions in sequence:
A. Initial steps in stabilization (dry and provide warmth, position, assess the airway, stimulate to breathe)
B. Ventilation
C. Chest compressions
D. Medications or volume expansion

Progression to the next step is initially based on simultaneous assessment of 2 vital characteristics: heart rate and respirations. Progression occurs only after successful completion of the preceding step. Approximately 30 seconds is allotted to complete each of the first 2 steps successfully, reevaluate, and decide whether to progress to the next (see Figure: Newborn Resuscitation Algorithm).

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/977002-overview

Neonatal Resuscitation

Background

Neonatal resuscitation skills are essential for all health care providers who are involved in the delivery of newborns. The transition from fetus to newborn requires intervention by a skilled individual or team in approximately 10% of all deliveries.

This figure is concerning because 81% of all babies in the United States are born in nonteaching, nonaffiliated level I or II hospitals. In such hospitals, the volume of delivery service may not be perceived as sufficient economic justification for the continuous in-hospital presence of personnel with high-risk delivery room experience, as recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG).[1]

Perinatal asphyxia and extreme prematurity are the 2 complications of pregnancy that most frequently necessitate complex resuscitation by skilled personnel. However, only 60% of asphyxiated newborns can be predicted ante partum. The remaining newborns are not identified until the time of birth. Additionally, approximately 80% of low-birth-weight infants require resuscitation and stabilization at delivery.

http://www.aafp.org/dam/AAFP/documents/cme/also/chapter-p-073013.pdf

Chapter P: Neonatal Resuscitation

This chapter provides an overview of the basic techniques used in neonatal resuscitation. These guidelines are applicable to the newly born as well as for infants who require resuscitation within the first few months after birth. An accompanying workshop will cover the techniques of airway management, positive-pressure (bag and mask) ventilation, endotracheal intubation, and protocols for dealing with meconium. The information presented is consistent with guidelines established by the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Heart Association in the 2011 6th edition Neonatal Resuscitation ProgramTM (NRPTM ).1,2 The ALSO® program is not intended to substitute for the advanced training and formal certification in neonatal resuscitation provided by the NRPTM.
One of the most satisfying events in medicine is being present at the birth of a healthy baby. Fortunately, more than 90 percent of infants have an uneventful birth, and can immediately be given to their mother. About one in ten infants have some difficulty with the transition to extrauterine life. More than half of distressed infants have identifiable risk factors; however since many do not, it is imperative to be prepared for the resuscitation of a distressed infant at every delivery. Although resuscitating a depressed newborn may seem an intimidating task, the maternity care provider can take comfort in the knowledge that infants generally respond well to simple, non-pharmacological measures and that mastery of a few simple techniques will allow the resuscitator to deal effectively with all but the most severely depressed infants.

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0415/p911.html#

Neonatal Resuscitation: An Update

Appropriate resuscitation must be available for each of the more than 4 million infants born annually in the United States. Ninety percent of infants transition safely, and it is up to the physician to assess risk factors, identify the nearly 10 percent of infants who need resuscitation, and respond appropriately. A team or persons trained in neonatal resuscitation should be promptly available to provide resuscitation. The Neonatal Resuscitation Program, which was initiated in 1987 to identify infants at risk of needing resuscitation and provide high-quality resuscitation, underwent major updates in 2006 and 2010. Among the most important changes are to not intervene with endotracheal suctioning in vigorous infants born through meconium-stained amniotic fluid (although endotracheal suctioning may be appropriate in nonvigorous infants); to provide positive pressure ventilation with one of three devices when necessary; to begin resuscitation of term infants using room air or blended oxygen; and to have a pulse oximeter readily available in the delivery room. The updated guidelines also provide indications for chest compressions and for the use of intravenous epinephrine, which is the preferred route of administration, and recommend not to use sodium bicarbonate or naloxone during resuscitation. Other recommendations include confirming endotracheal tube placement using an exhaled carbon dioxide detector; using less than 100 percent oxygen and adequate thermal support to resuscitate preterm infants; and using therapeutic hypothermia for infants born at 36 weeks' gestation or later with moderate to severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

http://www.health.vic.gov.au/neonatalhandbook/procedures/resuscitation.htm

Resuscitation of neonates

Approximately 10% of newborns delivered in hospital require resuscitation assistance to breathe at birth. Less than 1% will require extensive resuscitation.

The aim of neonatal resuscitation is to prevent neonatal death and adverse longterm neurodevelopmental sequelae associated with perinatal asphyxia.

Substantial physiologic changes occur in the transition from fetal to extrauterine life including:

Failure or disruption of these changes may result in further difficulties with resuscitation in the newborn infant. For example, failure to increase alveolar oxygen and reduce pulmonary vascular resistance may lead to persistence of fetal circulation or persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN).

The need for resuscitation of the newborn infant at birth cannot always be anticipated or predicted. Therefore, at every birth, no matter how ‘low risk’, suitable equipment and staff must be available and prepared to resuscitate the newborn infant.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2991653/

Neonatal resuscitation: Current issues

Neonatal Asphyxia accounts for 20.9% of neonatal deaths. Although the vast majority of newly born infants (90%) do not require intervention to breathe during transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life, approximately 10% of the newborns require some assistance to begin breathing at birth, and about 1% require extensive resuscitative measures.[13]

The goals of neonatal resuscitation are to prevent the morbidity and mortality associated with hypoxic-ischaemic tissue (brain, heart, kidney) injury and also to re-establish adequate spontaneous respiration and cardiac output.[2,3]

Guidelines for neonatal resuscitation have been issued by the American Heart Association and the American Academy of Paediatrics. The guidelines are helpful in remembering the sequence for resuscitation. Failure to follow the guidelines has resulted in bad outcomes.[1,2]

A rapid assessment of newly born infants who do not require resuscitation can generally be identified by the following four characteristics:

http://www.neonatal-nursing.co.uk/pdf/inf_015_nor.pdf

Neonatal thermoregulation

Hypothermia at birth
Immediately after delivery if no action is taken, the core and skin temperatures of a term neonate can decrease at a rate of approximately 0.1°C and 0.3°C per minute respectively9. The World Health Organisation defines mild hypothermia as a core body temperature of 36°C-36.4°C, moderate hypothermia as 35.9°C-32°C and severe hypothermia as less than 32°C10. The rapid decline in temperature is mainly due to physical characteristics of the newborn and environmental factors of the delivery area. Typically a wet newborn with a high surface area to volume ratio moves from a warm aqueous uterine environment into a cooler, dry delivery room9,11. The newborn immediately loses heat by evaporation, convection, conduction and radiation, dependent on the ambient air pressure, temperature and humidity and the temperature of surrounding surfaces12,13. As the temperature falls between 36°C to
35°C, newborn infants peripherally vasoconstrict and initiate non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) of brown adipose tissue14,15. Non-shivering and shivering thermogenesis from immature skeletal musculature is insignificant16. Brown fat constitutes approximately 1.4 percent of the body mass of newborns greater than 2 kilograms in weight and is prominent in nuchal subcutaneous tissue, around the kidneys, the mediastinium and intrascapular regions17. Brown fat contains high levels of triglycerides, is rich in capillaries and is innervated by sympathetic nerve fibres. NST is triggered by a surge in catecholamines, released from the sympathetic nervous system during times of cold stress.

http://www.uptodate.com/contents/neonatal-resuscitation-in-the-delivery-room

Neonatal resuscitation in the delivery room

The successful transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life is dependent upon significant physiologic changes that occur at birth. In almost all infants (90 percent), these changes are successfully completed at delivery without requiring any special assistance. However, about 10 percent of infants will need some intervention, and 1 percent will require extensive resuscitative measures at birth [1].

The indications and principles of neonatal resuscitation will be reviewed here. The physiological changes that occur in the transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life are discussed separately.

ANTICIPATION OF RESUSCITATION NEED

Being prepared is the first and most important step in delivering effective neonatal resuscitation [1]. Neonates requiring resuscitation are inevitably born in locations where resuscitation is uncommon because most newborns are healthy and do not require additional special assistance. In these settings, the need for resuscitation is not anticipated in most infants who require resuscitation [2]. As a result, at every birthing location, personnel who are adequately trained in neonatal resuscitation should be readily available to perform neonatal resuscitation whether or not problems are anticipated.

http://medind.nic.in/jaq/t11/i2/jaqt11i2p213.pdf

Neonatal Resuscitation -Golden first minute

The first minute after the birth of a newborn is a period of anxiety for parents and health providers, as the newborn undergoes
rapid and significant physiological changes to adjust to the environment outside the mother’s womb. While a majority of babies
go through this transition with minimal assistance from those attending the labor, about 10% of newborn require assistance.
Failure to provide the required assistance at this time could cause birth asphyxia, with long term complications and even death.
Birth asphyxia contributes to about 23% of the one million neonatal deaths in India. Neonatal Resuscitation should be carried out
in all settings where babies are born. Individuals at all levels require training, and seldom used skills need to be maintained, so
that, when required, resuscitation can be carried out efficiently and effectively.
Neonatal resuscitation is simple, inexpensive, and cost-effective but often not initiated, or the methods used are inadequate or
wrong. Though Neonatal Resuscitation training has been widely used in the developed world it had limited dissemination in the
developing countries, where it has a great potential as an intervention to reduce NMR .

http://www.cps.ca/documents/position/neonatal-resuscitation-guidelines

Neonatal resuscitation guidelines update: A case-based review

Rapid assessment

The previous resuscitation guidelines included five and, later, four rapid assessment questions [3]. The 2011 algorithm asks three questions regarding the status of the infant: “Is the infant of term gestation?”, “Is the infant crying or breathing?” and “Is there good muscle tone?”. Notably, there is no longer a question regarding the presence of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) because vigorous term babies born through MSAF may be managed without resuscitative intervention. Nevertheless, intubation and suction below the cords is still recommended in nonvigorous babies born through MSAF. Learners should be made aware of the need to assess the appearance of the amniotic fluid and the condition of the infant so a decision about suctioning can be made.

Initial steps, evaluation and positive pressure ventilation

Practitioners will need to complete the initial steps (warm, clear the airway as necessary, dry and stimulate), re-evaluate the infant’s condition (heart rate [HR] and breathing) and begin positive pressure ventilation (PPV), as indicated, within the ‘Golden Minute’ (American Academy of Pediatrics) [4]. A rise in HR remains the most important indicator of PPV effectiveness, and is best determined by auscultating the precordial pulse. The new algorithm reinforces the importance of establishing effective ventilation before providing chest compressions – tools to achieve this include a checklist of corrective actions (see Case 3), and the use of laryngeal mask and endotracheal airways.

http://www.neoresus.org.au/pages/neoresus_recom.php

Neonatal Resuscitation: Specific treatment recommendations

Management of meconium

Level 1 evidence has shown that intrapartum pharyngeal suctioning (suctioning the infant’s mouth & pharynx before delivery of the shoulders) does not reduce the incidence of meconium aspiration syndrome (Vain, et al., 2004)

Intubating & suctioning the trachea of a vigorous infant born through meconium stained amniotic fluid has not been shown to alter the infant’s outcome and may cause harm. (Wiswell, et al., 2000)


Recommendations:

Routine intrapartum suctioning of the infant’s oropharynx and nasopharynx in the presence of meconium is no longer recommended.

The benefit of tracheal suctioning in meconium stained depressed infants has not been systematically studied. The current guidelines state that if the amniotic fluid contains thick meconium and the infant is depressed at birth (as indicated by absent or depressed respirations and decreased muscle tone) the infant should receive brief tracheal suctioning (if a person with the professional expertise to perform this procedure is available).

Temperature control

Hypothermia can increase oxygen consumption, so the prevention of hypothermia during resuscitation is important. Well grown term infants who do not require resuscitation can be kept warm by being placed skin to skin with their mother. Preterm infants are at particular risk of hypothermia.

http://www.ilcor.org/data/13_CoSTR_2005_Part7.pdf

Part 7: Neonatal resuscitation

Approximately 10% of newborns require some assistance to begin breathing at birth, and about 1% require extensive resuscitation. Although the vast majority of newborn infants do not require intervention to make the transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life, the large number of births worldwide means that many infants require some resuscitation. Newborn infants who are born at term,
have had clear amniotic fluid, and are breathing or crying and have good tone must be dried and kept warm but do not require resuscitation. All others need to be assessed for the need to receive one or more of the following actions in sequence:
A. initial steps in stabilisation (clearing the airway, positioning, stimulating);
B. ventilation;
C. chest compressions;
D. medications or volume expansion.
Progression to the next step is based on simultaneous assessment of three vital signs: respirations, heart rate, and colour. Progression occurs only after successful completion of the preceding step. Approximately 30 s is allotted to complete one step successfully, re-evaluate, and decide whether to progress to the next (Figure 7.1). Since publication of the last International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) document,1 several controversial neonatal resuscitation issues have been identified.

http://fernandezresearch.files.wordpress.com/2010/03/evidence-based-neonatal-resuscitation.pdf

Evidence Based Neonatal Resuscitation

http://www.comed.uobaghdad.edu.iq/uploads/Lectures/pediatric/pediatric%202012-2013/dr.numan%20nafie%20hameed/lecture%206%20-%20Neonatal%20Resuscitation%20Program%20(NRP).pdf

Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP)

Approximately 10% of newborns require some assistance to begin breathing at birth. Less than 1% require extensive resuscitative measures. Although the vast majority of newly born infants do not require intervention to make the transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life, because of the large total number of births, a sizable number will require some degree of resuscitation.
Those newly born infants who do not require resuscitation can generally be identified by a rapid assessment of the following 3 characteristics:
● Term gestation?
● Crying or breathing?
● Good muscle tone?
If the answer to all 3 of these questions is “yes,” the baby does not need resuscitation and should not be separated from the mother. The baby should be dried, placed skin-to-skin with the mother, and covered with dry linen to maintain temperature. Observation of breathing, activity, and color should be ongoing.
If the answer to any of these assessment questions is “no,” the infant should receive one or more of the following 4 categories of action in sequence:
A. Initial steps in stabilization (provide warmth, clear airway if necessary, dry, stimulate)
B. Ventilation
C. Chest compressions
D. Administration of epinephrine and/or volume expansion
Approximately 60 seconds (“the Golden Minute”) are allotted for completing the initial steps, reevaluating, and beginning ventilation if required .
The decision to progress beyond the initial steps is determined by simultaneous assessment of 2 vital characteristics: respirations (apnea, gasping, or labored or unlabored breathing) and heart rate (whether greater than or less than 100 beats per minute).

http://www.sajaa.co.za/index.php/sajaa/article/viewFile/560/494

Update on neonatal resuscitation

In these times of highly subspecialised medicine, many anaesthesiologists in the US think of neonatal resuscitation as the sole responsibility of neonatologists and paediatricians. But does this role assignment really release anaesthesiologists from the obligation
to know how to perform an effective resuscitation of a newborn in the delivery room? The majority of babies are still born in small hospitals with limited staff and resources. A paediatrician or neonatologist might not always be available. A recent survey in the US, conducted among third year paediatric residents, showed a surprising deficiency in neonatal intubation skills.1 Around 10% of all newborns require some assistance after birth, and 1% will need full resuscitation. For preterm or low birth weight infants, this percentage increases dramatically. Unfortunately, only 60% of resuscitations are predictable antepartum, and often a timely maternal transfer to a tertiary centre is not possible.2 Therefore, it is important that everyone who is involved in delivery room care, including the anaesthesiologist, frequently reviews the principles of neonatal resuscitation, checks and maintains the necessary equipment, and organises contingency plans for additional help.

http://www.medicine.usask.ca/leadership/social-accountability/initiatives/mtl1/pdfs/Neonatal%20Recuscitation.pdf

Summary of Major Changes to the 2005 AAP/AHA Emergency Cardiovascular Care Guidelines for Neonatal Resuscitation

http://www.colegiodepediatriadelestadodemexico.com/reanimacion%20neon.%20austral.pdf

New Australian Neonatal Resuscitation guidelines

The Australian Resuscitation Council has just published the Australian Neonatal Resuscitation guidelines at http://www. resus.org.au. This is the first time Australia has had specific guidelines for neonatal resuscitation. These have been discussed, edited and produced by many people involved in teaching neonatal resuscitation in Australia. They are based on the ILCOR 2005 Consensus on Resuscitation
Science and Treatment Recommendations,1 the European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for resuscitation 2005 Section 52 and local practices. A list of neonatal resuscitation topics reviewed during the ILCOR C2005 conference and the worksheets that were used to support the 2005 resuscitation guidelines can be found at: http://www.americanheart.org/ presenter.jhtml?identifier=3026625. Set out below are some of the changes recommended in the new Australian Neonatal Resuscitation guidelines. Some of these differ slightly from the guidelines published by the American Academy of Pediatrics. This paper highlights areas of resuscitation teaching which haverecently changed. A complete copy of the guidelines can be obtained from the Australian Resuscitation Councila. The new guidelines emphasise that effective ventilation is the key to successful neonatal resuscitation.

http://www.cprtrainingfast.com/downloads/nrp_prep_materials.pdf

NEONATAL RESUSCITATION PROVIDER (NRP) RECERTIFICATION

“Newborn” and “neonate” apply to any infant during initial hospitalization. “Newly born” applies specifically to an infant at the time of birth.
Nearly 10% of newborns require some assistance to begin breathing at birth. Approximately 1% require extensive resuscitative measures. Although the vast majority of newly born infants do not require intervention to make the transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life, because of the large number of births, a sizable number will require some degree of resuscitation.
Newly born infants not requiring resuscitation can generally be identified by a rapid assessment of the following 4 characteristics:
• Was the infant born after a full-term gestation?
• Is the amniotic fluid clear of meconium and evidence of infection?
• Is the infant breathing or crying?
• Does the infant have good muscle tone?
If the answer to all 4 of these questions is "yes," the infant does not need resuscitation and should not be separated from the mother. The infant can be dried, placed directly on the mother's chest, and covered with dry linen to maintain temperature. Observation of breathing, activity, and color should be ongoing.

http://www.ohsu.edu/xd/health/services/doernbecher/research-education/education/residency/upload/res_lounge_Neonatal-Resuscitation-Beyond-the-Basics.pdf

Neonatal Resuscitation: Beyond the Basics

It may be argued that the most stressful period for both newborns and their caregivers is the first 5 minutes after birth. Most infants adapt well to the transition from intrauterine life, but approximately 10% require some intervention beyond drying, warmth, and
minimal airway suction, with 10% to 20% of this group requiring more aggressive interventions to establish and maintain homeostasis. Effectively performed neonatal resuscitation has the potential to decrease infant mortality and morbidity. After birth, the infant must establish effective respirations to achieve successful transition to extrauterine life. Apnea in the immediate newborn period may be an initial sign of asphyxia or may be related to maternal drugs, sepsis, neuromuscular disease, or congenital anomalies. An in utero hypoxic-ischemic injury usually results in the development of primary apnea, which is reversed easily with initial resuscitative measures. More prolonged or severe hypoxia-ischemia leads to secondary apnea that requires more aggressive interventions to reverse. Prolonged apnea after delivery is accompanied by bradycardia and hypotension. The Apgar score may be used to assess the effectiveness of resuscitative
efforts. The score was developed in the 1950s by Virginia Apgar as a method of assessing obstetrical and maternal anesthetic management at 1 minute after birth. (1) The 5-minute score is somewhat more predictive of neonatal mortality but has been less useful in predicting long-term neurodevelopmental outcome. (2)


Neonatal Resuscitation Medication administration


International Guidelines for Neonatal Resuscitation

Queensland Maternity and Neonatal Clinical Guideline: Neonatal resuscitation

Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) 2 BLS – Course Overview

Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP)

NEONATAL RESUSCITATION

Paramedic: Pharmacology Applications: Pharmacology Applications

WORKSHEET for PROPOSED Evidence-Based GUIDELINE RECOMMENDATIONS

Documentation of Neonatal Resuscitation

Neonatal Resuscitation

Advances in Emergency Treatment Research and Application: 2013 Edition

Comprehensive Neonatal Nursing Care: Fifth Edition

Neonatal Resuscitation for Providers

Neonatal Asphyxia, Resuscitation and Beyond

Pediatric Pharmacotherapy

Neonatal Resuscitation Guidelines

Chapter III.3. Newborn Resuscitation

Poor Response to Resuscitation: Hypovolemia

Newer Guidelines for Neonatal Resuscitation – How My Practice Needs To Change?

Neonatal Intubation and Related Procedures

CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION (CPR)


Neonatal Resuscitation Program 6th Edition

Newer Guidelines for Neonatal Resuscitation – How My Practice Needs To Change?







































































































http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/106/3/e29.full

International Guidelines for Neonatal Resuscitation

The Neonatal Resuscitation Guidelines present the recommendations of the International Guidelines 2000 Conference on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) and Emergency Cardiovascular Care (ECC). The Guidelines 2000 Conference assembled international experts from many fields, including neonatal resuscitation, to comprehensively update existing guidelines through a process of evidence evaluation.

The Neonatal Resuscitation Program Steering Committee (American Academy of Pediatrics), the Pediatric Working Group of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR), and the Pediatric Resuscitation Subcommittee of the Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee (American Heart Association) worked together for 2 years in a systematic process of evidence evaluation and formulation of new recommendations. In 1999 the Pediatric Working Group of ILCOR developed a consensus advisory statement, “Resuscitation of the newly born infant” (Pediatrics 1999;103(4).http://www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/103/4/e56).


http://www.health.qld.gov.au/qcg/documents/g_resus5-0.pdf

Queensland Maternity and Neonatal Clinical Guideline: Neonatal resuscitation






http://www.cprcertificationonlinehq.com/neonatal-resuscitation-program-nrp-2-bls-course-overview/

Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) 2 BLS – Course Overview

Neonatal Resuscitation Program or NRP is more than a course. It is an educational program, through which, trainees are taught and trained on the process of providing life support and care to new born babies. A medical professional who has an NRP certificate is considered as one who can identify and recognize different medical conditions that a new born infant is experiencing – like, breathing difficulty. NRP is more than just a program. It is a combined effort of the American Academy of Pediatrics and American Heart Association. The Neonatal Resuscitation Program has been designed and developed to teach and train evidence based approach, as well as, resuscitation of newly born infants to medical professionals who are in charge of ensuring timely delivery of babies. They include nurses, physicians, and respiratory therapists.

NRP was introduced and launched in 1987 and ever since its inception; more than 3 million people in America alone have undergone NRP certification training. It released its 6th Edition in 2011, which was on the basis of simulation methodology, boosting the development of vital leadership, team work and communication skills.

The programs features simulation based learning, hands-on skills training, along with debriefing various exercises that with your team. NRP instructors are made of up of physicians, nurses, midwives and respiratory therapists who have both expertise and high level of newborn care experience at the same time.


http://www.seattlechildrens.org/healthcare-professionals/education/nrp/

Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP)

NRP courses are held at the University of Washington Medical Center Institute for Simulation and Interprofessional Studies (ISIS)

Courses are held at the Institute for Simulation and Interprofessional Studies (ISIS) at the University of Washington Medical Center Surgery Pavilion. Parking is available for a fee directly across the street from the main entrance to the University of Washington Medical Center in the Triangle Parking Garage.

Institute for Simulation and Interprofessional Studies (ISIS)
University of Washington Medical Center Surgery Pavilion
1959 NE Pacific St.
Seattle, WA 98195-6410

Seattle Children’s is an approved provider of continuing nursing education by the Washington State Nurses Association Continuing Education Approval and Recognition Program (CEARP), an accredited approver by the American Nurses Credentialing Center’s Commission on Accreditation. Nursing continuing education credit is available only the first time the participant takes this in-person course using the Textbook of Neonatal Resuscitation, 6th edition, and the 6th edition NRP online examination. When a participant renews their NRP status with 6th edition materials (repeats this 6th edition course) continuing nursing education credit is not available.


www.emssuccess.org/Documents/NRP.pptx
NEONATAL RESUSCITATION






http://books.google.com.ng/books?id=5SLWE-sKWeoC&pg=PA351&lpg=PA351&dq=%22Neonatal+Resuscitation%22%22Medication+administration%22&source=bl&ots=2l_HSSzEFP&sig=bFtuvz0hezzPjyEomDFXf0185SE&hl=en&sa=X&ei=O_mzU87eDMGmPczRgPAN&ved=0CEMQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=%22Neonatal%20Resuscitation%22%22Medication%20administration%22&f=false

Paramedic: Pharmacology Applications: Pharmacology Applications





https://www2.aap.org/nrp/docs/ILCOR_eval_05/endotracheal_medication/administration_of_endotracheal_medications_A.pdf

WORKSHEET for PROPOSED Evidence-Based GUIDELINE RECOMMENDATIONS